Murad at a lecture in 2008
September 14, 1936 |
|Institutions||University of Virginia (1970-81), Stanford (1981-88), Abbott Laboratories (1988-93), University of Texas Medical School at Houston (1997-2011), George Washington University (2011-Present)|
|Alma mater||DePauw University (BS, 1958) and Case Western Reserve University (MD-Ph.D., 1965)|
|Doctoral advisor||Earl Sutherland, Jr. and Theodore Rall|
|Known for||Discoveries concerning cyclic GMP as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system|
|Notable awards||Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1998) and the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research (1996)|
There are very few things in the body that nitric oxide doesn't regulate.
I am not surprised that other gases may participate in cellular signaling and regulation. Our early work with nitric oxide was just the beginning. I'm sure more will be discovered.
My parents always encouraged us to get an education and establish a profession. However, my brothers and I grew up with considerable freedom, whether it was saving or spending our tips from the restaurant or our career choices.
I knew I wanted considerable education so that I wouldn't have to work as hard as my parents.
The restaurant business had a profound effect on my future and that of my two brothers. When we were able to stand on a stool to reach the sink, we washed dishes, and later, when we could see over the counter, we waited tables and managed the cash register.
The childhood poverty of both my parents and their minimal education did much to influence me and my two younger brothers in our education and career choices. One brother became a dentist and the other, a professor of anthropology with a Ph.D. degree.
What does that suggest when a compound this simple plays such an important role? To me it suggests that nitric oxide is one of the most primitive elements of cellular signaling, that it goes way back into evolution.
Grade school, middle school and high school were relatively easy for me, and with little studying, I was an honor student every semester, graduating 5th in my high school class.