Wilhelm Wundt in 1902
|Born||Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt
16 August 1832
Neckarau near Mannheim, Grand Duchy of Baden, German Confederation
|Died||31 August 1920
(aged 88) |
GroÃŸbothen, Saxony, Germany
|Fields||Experimental psychology, Culture and Psychology, Philosophy, Physiology|
|Institutions||University of Leipzig|
|Alma mater||University of Heidelberg
|Thesis||Untersuchungen Ã¼ber das Verhalten der Nerven in entzÃ¼ndeten und degenerierten Organen (1856)|
|Doctoral advisor||Karl Ewald Hasse|
|Other academic advisors||Hermann von Helmholtz
Johannes Peter MÃ¼ller
|Doctoral students||Oswald KÃ¼lpe, Hugo MÃ¼nsterberg, James McKeen Cattell, G. Stanley Hall, Edward B. Titchener, Lightner Witmer|
|Known for||Experimental psychology
|Influences||Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Immanuel Kant, Gustav Theodor Fechner, Johann Friedrich Herbart|
|Influenced||Emil Kraepelin, Sigmund Freud|
The attitude of physiological psychology to sensations and feelings, considered as psychical elements, is, naturally, the attitude of psychology at large.
In the animal world, on the other hand, the process of evolution is characterised by the progressive discrimination of the animal and vegetative functions, and a consequent differentiation of these two great provinces into their separate departments.
We speak of virtue, honour, reason; but our thought does not translate any one of these concepts into a substance.
Physiology is concerned with all those phenomena of life that present them selves to us in sense perception as bodily processes, and accordingly form part of that total environment which we name the external world.
Physiology and psychology cover, between them, the field of vital phenomena; they deal with the facts of life at large, and in particular with the facts of human life.
Physiological psychology, on the other hand, is competent to investigate the relations that hold between the processes of the physical and those of the mental life.
From the standpoint of observation, then, we must regard it as a highly probable hypothesis that the beginnings of the mental life date from as far back as the beginnings of life at large.
The materialistic point of view in psychology can claim, at best, only the value of an heuristic hypothesis.
On the other hand, ethnic psychology must always come to the assistance of individual psychology, when the developmental forms of the complex mental processes are in question.
Child psychology and animal psychology are of relatively slight importance, as compared with the sciences which deal with the corresponding physiological problems of ontogeny and phylogeny.
In Aristotle the mind, regarded as the principle of life, divides into nutrition, sensation, and faculty of thought, corresponding to the inner most important stages in the succession of vital phenomena.
The results of ethnic psychology constitute, at the same time, our chief source of information regarding the general psychology of the complex mental processes.
The task of physiological psychology remains the same in the analysis of ideas that it was in the investigation of sensations: to act as mediator between the neighbouring sciences of physiology and psychology.
Now, there are a very large number of bodily movements, having their source in our nervous system, that do not possess the character of conscious actions.
Philosophical reflection could not leave the relation of mind and spirit in the obscurity which had satisfied the needs of the naive consciousness.
Physiology seeks to derive the processes in our own nervous system from general physical forces, without considering whether these processes are or are not accompanied by processes of consciousness.
Hence, wherever we meet with vital phenomena that present the two aspects, physical and psychical there naturally arises a question as to the relations in which these aspects stand to each other.
Hence, even in the domain of natural science the aid of the experimental method becomes indispensable whenever the problem set is the analysis of transient and impermanent phenomena, and not merely the observation of persistent and relatively constant objects.
The general statement that the mental faculties are class concepts, belonging to descriptive psychology, relieves us of the necessity of discussing them and their significance at the present stage of our inquiry.
The distinguishing characteristics of mind are of a subjective sort; we know them only from the contents of our own consciousness.